[ENGLISH] The Word of God – two aspects of the Word.

13 May
the 4th Commandment on Nash Papyrus "Reme...

the 4th Commandment on Nash Papyrus “Remember the Sabbath” row 9, words 5-8. in Hebrew script: “zahor et yom ha’shabat”. similar to Exodus 20:7 Egypt, 2nd century CE עברית: הדיבר הרביעי מעשרת הדברות בפפירוס נאש, “זכור את יום השבת” (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The Word of God can be seen as a revelation, and as an expression of God’s action.

God speaks to bring together the human mind the thoughts of God.
The Word of God can be a law, the norm of life, the appearance of the meaning of things and events. It can also be a promise and a promise of the future.

The Word of God is a dynamic reality, the power which makes the works intended by God.


Exodus 20, 1 – 17
And the Lord spoke all these words: 2 I am the Lord your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. 3 You shall not have strange gods before me. 4 You shall not make to yourself a graven thing, nor the likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or in the earth beneath, nor of those things that are in the waters under the earth. 5 You shall not adore them, nor serve them: I am the Lord your God, mighty, jealous, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me: 6 And showing mercy unto thousands to them that love me, and keep my commandments. 7 You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in vain: for the Lord will not hold him guiltless that shall take the name of the Lord his God in vain. 8 Remember that you keep holy the sabbath day. 9 Six days shall you labour, and shall do all your works. 10 But on the seventh day is the sabbath of the Lord your God: you shall do no work on it, neither you nor your son, nor your daughter, nor your manservant, nor your maidservant, nor your beast, nor the stranger that is within your gates. 11 For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, and the sea, and all things that are in them, and rested on the seventh day: therefore the Lord blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it. 12 Honour your father and your mother, that you may be longlived upon the land which the Lord your God will give you. 13 You shall not kill. 14 You shall not commit adultery. 15 You shall not steal. 16 You shall not bear false witness against your neighbour. 17 You shall not covet your neighbour’s house; neither shall you desire his wife, nor his servant, nor his handmaid, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is his.
[A graven thing, nor the likeness of any thing, etc… All such images, or likenesses, are forbidden by this commandment, as are made to be adored and served; according to that which immediately follows, you shall not adore them, nor serve them. That is, all such as are designed for idols or image-gods, or are worshipped with divine honour. But otherwise images, pictures, or representations, even in the house of God, and in the very sanctuary so far from being forbidden, are expressly authorized by the word of God. See Exodus 25:15, and etc.; Exodus 38:7; Numbers 21:8-9; 1 Chronicles 28:18-19; 2 Chronicles 3:10. (Challoner)]

Deuteronomy 5, 6 – 22
6 I am the Lord your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. 7 You shall not have strange gods in my sight. 8 You shall not make to your self a graven thing, nor the likeness of any things, that are in heaven above, or that are in the earth beneath, or that abide in the waters under the earth. 9 You shall not adore them, and you shall not serve them. For I am the Lord your God, a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon their children unto the third and fourth generation, to them that hate me, 10 and showing mercy unto many thousands, to them that love me, and keep my commandments. 11 You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in vain: for he shall not be unpunished that takes his name upon a vain thing. 12 Observe the day of the sabbath, to sanctify it, as the Lord your God has commanded you. 13 Six days shall you labour, and shall do all your works. 14 The seventh is the day of the sabbath, that is, the rest of the Lord your God. You shall not do any work therein, neither you nor your son nor your daughter, nor your manservant nor your maidservant, nor your ox, nor your ass, nor any of your beasts, nor the stranger that is within your gates: that your manservant and your maidservant may rest, even as yourself. 15 Remember that you also served in Egypt, and the Lord your God brought you out from thence with a strong hand, and a stretched out arm. Therefore has he commanded you that you should observe the sabbath day. 16 Honour your father and mother, as the Lord your God has commanded you, that you may live a long time, and it may be well with you in the land, which the Lord your God will give you. 17 You shall not kill. 18 Neither shall you commit adultery. 19 And you shall not steal. 20 Neither shall you bear false witness against your neighbour. 21 You shall not covet your neighbour’s wife: nor his house, nor his field, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is his. 22 These words the Lord spoke to all the multitude of you in the mountain, out of the midst of the fire and the cloud, and the darkness, with a loud voice, adding nothing more: and he wrote them in two tables of stone, which he delivered unto me.

Exodus 34, 28
28 And he was there with the Lord forty days and forty nights: he neither ate bread nor drank water, and he wrote upon the tables the ten words of the covenant.

Deuteronomy 4, 13
13 And he showed you his covenant, which he commanded you to do, and the ten words that he wrote in two tables of stone.

Deuteronomy 10, 4
4 And he wrote in the tables, according as he had written before, the ten words, which the Lord spoke to you in the mount from the midst of the fire, when the people were assembled: and he gave them to me.

Exodus 20, 1
1 And the Lord spoke all these words: (2)

Deuteronomy 4, 12
12 And the Lord spoke to you from the midst of the fire. You heard the voice of his words, but you saw not any form at all.

Exodus 34, 10 – 28
10 The Lord answered: I will make a covenant in the sight of all, I will do signs such as were never seen upon the earth, nor in any nations; that this people, in the midst of whom you are, may see the terrible work of the Lord which I will do.11 Observe all things which this day I command you: I myself will drive out before your face the Amorrhite, and the Chanaanite, and the Hethite, and the Pherezite, and the Hevite, and the Jebusite. 12 Beware that you never join in friendship with the inhabitants of that land, which may be your ruin: 13 But destroy their altars, break their statues and cut down their groves: 14 Adore not any strange god. The Lord his name is jealous, he is a jealous God. 15 Make no covenant with the men of those countries; lest, when they have committed fornication with their gods, and have adored their idols, some one call you to eat of the things sacrificed. 16 Neither shall you take of their daughters a wife for your son, lest after they themselves have committed fornication, they make your sons also to commit fornication with their gods. 17 You shall not make to yourself any molten gods. 18 You shall keep the feast of the unleavened bread. Seven days shall you eat unleavened bread, as I commanded you in the time of the month of the new corn: for in the month of the spring time you came out from Egypt. 19 All of the male kind that opens the womb, shall be mine. Of all beasts; both of oxen and of sheep, it shall be mine. 20 The firstling of an ass you shall redeem with a sheep: but if you will not give a price for it, it shall be slain. The firstborn of your sons you shall redeem: neither shall you appear before me empty. 21 Six days shall you work, the seventh day you shall cease to plough and to reap. 22 You shall keep the feast of weeks with the firstfruits of the corn of your wheat harvest, and the feast when the time of the year returns that all things are laid in. 23 Three times in the year all your males shall appear in the sight of the almighty Lord the God of Israel. 24 For when I shall have taken away the nations from your face, and shall have enlarged your borders, no man shall lie in wait against your land when you shall go up, and appear in the sight of the Lord your God thrice in a year. 25 You shall not offer the blood of my sacrifice upon leaven; neither shall there remain in the morning anything of the victim of the solemnity of the Phase. 26 The first of the fruits of your ground you shall offer in the house of the Lord your God. You shall not boil a kid in the milk of his dam. 27 And the Lord said to Moses: Write you these words, by which I have made a covenant both with you and with Israel. 28 And he was there with the Lord forty days and forty nights: he neither ate bread nor drank water, and he wrote upon the tables the ten words of the covenant.

Proverbs 18, 13;
13 He that answers before he hears, shows himself to be a fool, and worthy of confusion.

Proverbs 16, 20
20 The learned in word shall find good things: and he that trusts in the Lord is blessed.

Psalm 119
1 Aleph. Blessed are the undefiled in the way, who walk in the law of the Lord. 2 Blessed are they that search his testimonies: that seek him with their whole heart. 3 For they that work iniquity, have not walked in his ways. 4 You have commanded your commandments to be kept most diligently. 5 O! That my ways may be directed to keep your justifications. 6 Then shall I not be confounded, when I shall look into all your commandments. 7 I will praise you with uprightness of heart, when I shall have learned the judgments of your justice. 8 I will keep your justifications: O! Do not utterly forsake me. 9 Beth. By what does a young man correct his way? By observing your words. 10 With my whole heart have I sought after you: let me not stray from your commandments. 11 Your words have I hidden in my heart, that I may not sin against you. 12 Blessed are you, O Lord: teach me your justifications. 13 With my lips I have pronounced all the judgments of your mouth. 14 I have been delighted in the way of your testimonies, as in all riches. 15 I will meditate on your commandments: and I will consider your ways. 16 I will think of your justifications: I will not forget your words. 17 Gimel. Give bountifully to your servant, enliven me: and I shall keep your words. 18 Open my eyes: and I will consider the wondrous things of your law. 19 I am a sojourner on the earth: hide not your commandments from me. 20 My soul has coveted to long for your justifications, at all times. 21 You have rebuked the proud: they are cursed who decline from your commandments. 22 Remove from me reproach and contempt: because I have sought after your testimonies. 23 For princes sat, and spoke against me: but your servant was employed in your justifications. 24 For your testimonies are my meditation: and your justifications my counsel. 25 Daleth. My soul has cleaved to the pavement: quicken me according to your word. 26 I have declared my ways, and you have heard me: teach me your justifications. 27 Make me to understand the way of your justifications: and I shall be exercised in your wondrous works. 28 My soul has slumbered through heaviness: strengthen me in your words. 29 Remove from me the way of iniquity: and out of your law have mercy on me. 30 I have chosen the way of truth: your judgments I have not forgotten. 31 I have stuck to your testimonies, O Lord: put me not to shame. 32 I have run the way of your commandments, when you did enlarge my heart. 33 He. Set before me for a law the way of your justifications, O Lord: and I will always seek after it. 34 Give me understanding, and I will search your law; and I will keep it with my whole heart. 35 Lead me into the path of your commandments; for this same I have desired. 36 Incline my heart into your testimonies and not to covetousness. 37 Turn away my eyes that they may not behold vanity: quicken me in your way. 38 Establish your word to your servant, in your fear. 39 Turn away my reproach, which I have apprehended: for your judgments are delightful. 40 Behold I have longed after your precepts: quicken me in your justice. 41 Vau. Let your mercy also come upon me, O Lord: your salvation according to your word. 42 So shall I answer them that reproach me in anything; that I have trusted in your words. 43 And take not the word of truth utterly out of my mouth: for in your words, I have hoped exceedingly. 44 So shall I always keep your law, for ever and ever. 45 And I walked at large: because I have sought after your commandments. 46 And I spoke of your testimonies before kings: and I was not ashamed. 47 I meditated also on your commandments, which I loved. 48 And I lifted up my hands to your commandments, which I loved: and I was exercised in your justifications. 49 Zain. Be mindful of your word to your servant, in which you have given me hope. 50 This has comforted me in my humiliation: because your word has enlivened me. 51 The proud did iniquitously altogether: but I declined not from your law. 52 I remembered, O Lord, your judgments of old: and I was comforted. 53 A fainting has taken hold of me, because of the wicked that forsake your law. 54 Your justifications were the subject of my song, in the place of my pilgrimage. 55 In the night I have remembered your name, O Lord: and have kept your law. 56 This happened to me: because I sought after your justifications. 57 Heth. O Lord, my portion, I have said, I would keep your law. 58 I entreated your face with all my heart: have mercy on me according to your word. 59 I have thought on my ways: and turned my feet unto your testimonies. 60 I am ready, and am not troubled: that I may keep your commandments. 61 The cords of the wicked have encompassed me: but I have not forgotten your law. 62 I rose at midnight to give praise to you; for the judgments of your justification. 63 I am a partaker with all them that fear you, and that keep your commandments. 64 The earth, O Lord, is full of your mercy: teach me your justifications. 65 Teth. You have done well with your servant, O Lord, according to your word. 66 Teach me goodness and discipline and knowledge; for I have believed your commandments. 67 Before I was humbled I offended; therefore have I kept your word. 68 You are good; and in your goodness teach me your justifications. 69 The iniquity of the proud has been multiplied over me: but I will seek your commandments with my whole heart. 70 Their heart is curdled like milk: but I have meditated on your law. 71 It is good for me that you have humbled me, that I may learn your justifications. 72 The law of your mouth is good to me, above thousands of gold and silver. 73 Jod. Your hands have made me and formed me: give me understanding, and I will learn your commandments. 74 They that fear you shall see me, and shall be glad: because I have greatly hoped in your words. 75 I know, O Lord, that your judgments are equity: and in your truth you have humbled me. 76 O! let your mercy be for my comfort, according to your word unto your servant. 77 Let your tender mercies come unto me, and I shall live: for your law is my meditation. 78 Let the proud be ashamed, because they have done unjustly towards me: but I will be employed in your commandments. 79 Let them that fear you turn to me: and they that know your testimonies. 80 Let my heart be undefiled in your justifications, that I may not be confounded. 81 Caph. My soul has fainted after your salvation: and in your word I have very much hoped. 82 My eyes have failed for your word, saying: When will you comfort me? 83 For I have become like a bottle in the frost: I have not forgotten your justifications. 84 How many are the days of your servant: when will you execute judgment on them that persecute me? 85 The wicked have told me fables: but not as your law. 86 All your statutes are truth: they have persecuted me unjustly; help me. 87 They had almost made an end of me upon earth: but I have not forsaken your commandments. 88 Quicken me according to your mercy: and I shall keep the testimonies of your mouth. 89 Lamed. Forever, O Lord, your word stands firm in heaven. 90 Your truth unto all generations: you have founded the earth, and it continues. 91 By your ordinance the day goes on: for all things serve you. 92 Unless your law had been my meditation, I had then perhaps perished in my abjection. 93 Your justifications I will never forget: for by them you have given me life. 94 I am yours, save me: for I have sought your justifications. 95 The wicked have waited for me to destroy me: but I have understood your testimonies. 96 I have seen an end of all perfection: your commandment is exceeding broad. 97 Mem. O how have I loved your law, O Lord! It is my meditation all the day. 98 Through your commandment, you have made me wiser than my enemies: for it is ever with me. 99 I have understood more than all my teachers: because your testimonies are my meditation. 100 I have had understanding above ancients: because I have sought your commandments. 101 I have restrained my feet from every evil way: that I may keep your words. 102 I have not declined from your judgments, because you have set me a law. 103 How sweet are your words to my palate! More than honey to my mouth. 104 By your commandments I have had understanding: therefore have I hated every way of iniquity. 105 Nun. Your word is a lamp to my feet, and a light to my paths. 106 I have sworn and am determined to keep the judgments of your justice. 107 I have been humbled, O Lord, exceedingly: quicken me according to your word. 108 The free offerings of my mouth make acceptable, O Lord: and teach me your judgments. 109 My soul is continually in my hands: and I have not forgotten your law. 110 Sinners have laid a snare for me: but I have not erred from your precepts. 111 I have purchased your testimonies for an inheritance for ever: because they are the joy of my heart. 112 I have inclined my heart to do your justifications for ever, for the reward. 113 Samech. I have hated the unjust: and have loved your law. 114 You are my helper and my protector: and in your word I have greatly hoped. 115 Depart from me, you malignant: and I will search the commandments of my God. 116 Uphold me according to your word, and I shall live: and let me not be confounded in my expectation. 117 Help me, and I shall be saved: and I will meditate always on your justifications. 118 You have despised all them that fall off from your judgments; for their thought is unjust. 119 I have accounted all the sinners of the earth prevaricators: therefore have I loved your testimonies. 120 Pierce my flesh with your fear: for I am afraid of your judgments. 121 Ain. I have done judgment and justice: give me not up to them that slander me. 122 Uphold your servant unto good: let not the proud calumniate me. 123 My eyes have fainted after your salvation: and for the word of your justice. 124 Deal with your servant according to your mercy: and teach me your justifications. 125 I am your servant: give me understanding that I may know your testimonies. 126 It is time, O Lord, to do: they have dissipated your law. 127 Therefore have I loved your commandments above gold and the topaz. 128 Therefore was I directed to all your commandments: I have hated all wicked ways. 129 Phe. Your testimonies are wonderful: therefore my soul has sought them. 130 The declaration of your words gives light: and gives understanding to little ones. 131 I opened my mouth, and panted: because I longed for your commandments. 132 Look upon me, and have mercy on me according to the judgment of them that love your name. 133 Direct my steps according to your word: and let no iniquity have dominion over me. 134 Redeem me from the calumnies of men: that I may keep your commandments. 135 Make your face to shine upon your servant: and teach me your justifications. 136 My eyes have sent forth springs of water: because they have not kept your law. 137 Sade. You are just, O Lord: and your judgment is right. 138 You have commanded justice your testimonies: and your truth exceedingly. 139 My zeal has made me pine away: because my enemies forgot your words. 140 Your word is exceedingly refined: and your servant has loved it. 141 I am very young and despised; but I forget not your justifications. 142 Your justice is justice for ever: and your law is the truth. 143 Trouble and anguish have found me: your commandments are my meditation. 144 Your testimonies are justice for ever: give me understanding, and I shall live. 145 Coph. I cried with my whole heart, hear me, O Lord: I will seek your justifications. 146 I cried unto you, save me: that I may keep your commandments. 147 I prevented the dawning of the day, and cried: because in your words I very much hoped. 148 My eyes to you have prevented the morning: that I might meditate on your words. 149 Hear my voice, O Lord, according to your mercy: and quicken me according to your judgment. 150 They that persecute me have drawn near to iniquity; but they have gone far off from your law. 151 You are near, O Lord: and all your ways are truth. 152 I have known from the beginning concerning your testimonies: that you have founded them for ever. 153 Res. See my humiliation and deliver me for I have not forgotten your law. 154 Judge my judgment and redeem me: quicken me for your word’s sake. 155 Salvation is far from sinners; because they have not sought your justifications. 156 Many, O Lord, are your mercies: quicken me according to your judgment. 157 Many are they that persecute me and afflict me; but I have not declined from your testimonies. 158 I beheld the transgressors, and pined away; because they kept not your word. 159 Behold I have loved your commandments, O Lord; quicken me in your mercy. 160 The beginning of your words is truth: all the judgments of your justice are for ever. 161 Sin. Princes have persecuted me without cause: and my heart has been in awe of your words. 162 I will rejoice at your words, as one that has found great spoil. 163 I have hated and abhorred iniquity; but I have loved your law. 164 Seven times a day I have given praise to you, for the judgments of your justice. 165 Much peace have they that love your law, and to them there is no stumbling block. 166 I looked for your salvation, O Lord: and I loved your commandments. 167 My soul has kept your testimonies and has loved them exceedingly. 168 I have kept your commandments and your testimonies: because all my ways are in your sight. 169 Tau. Let my supplication, O Lord, come near in your sight: give me understanding according to your word. 170 Let my request come in before you; deliver me according to your word. 171 My lips shall utter a hymn, when you shall teach me your justifications. 172 My tongue shall pronounce your word: because all your commandments are justice. 173 Let your hand be with me to save me; for I have chosen your precepts. 174 I have longed for your salvation, O Lord; and your law is my meditation. 175 My soul shall live and shall praise you: and your judgments shall help me. 176 I have gone astray like a sheep that is lost: seek your servant, because I have not forgotten your commandments.

Exodus 20, 2
2 I am the Lord your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.

Exodus 3, 13 – 15
13 Moses said to God: Lo, I shall go to the children of Israel, and say to them: The God of your fathers has sent me to you. If they shall say to me: What is his name? What shall I say to them? 14 God said to Moses: I AM WHO AM. He said: Thus shall you say to the children of Israel: HE WHO IS, has sent me to you. 15 And God said again to Moses: Thus shall you say to the children of Israel: The Lord God of your fathers the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob has sent me to you; this is my name for ever, and this is my memorial unto all generations.
[I am who am… That is, I am being itself, eternal, self-existent, independent, infinite; without beginning, end, or change; and the source of all other beings. (Challoner)]

Deuteronomy 6, 4
4 Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God is one Lord.

Joshua 24, 2 – 13
2 And he spoke thus to the people: Thus says the Lord the God of Israel: Your fathers dwelt of old on the other side of the river, Thare the father of Abraham, and Nachor: and they served strange gods. 3 And I took your father Abraham from the borders of Mesopotamia: and brought him into the land of Chanaan: and I multiplied his seed, 4 and gave him Isaac: and to him again I gave Jacob and Esau. And I gave to Esau mount Seir for his possession: but Jacob and his children went down into Egypt. 5 And I sent Moses and Aaron, and I struck Egypt with many signs and wonders. 6 And I brought you and your fathers out of Egypt, and you came to the sea: and the Egyptians pursued your fathers with chariots and horsemen, as far as the Red Sea. 7 And the children of Israel cried to the Lord: and he put darkness between you and the Egyptians, and brought the sea upon them, and covered them. Your eyes saw all that I did in Egypt, and you dwelt in the wilderness a long time. 8 And I brought you into the land of the Amorrhite, who dwelt beyond the Jordan. And when they fought against you, I delivered them into your hands, and you possessed their land, and slew them. 9 And Balac son of Sephor king of Moab arose and fought against Israel. And he sent and called for Balaam son of Beor, to curse you: 10 And I would not hear him, but on the contrary I blessed you by him, and I delivered you out of his hand. 11 And you passed over the Jordan, and you came to Jericho. And the men of that city fought against you, the Amorrhite, and the Pherezite, and the Chanaanite, and the Hethite, and the Gergesite, and the Hevite, and the Jebusite: and I delivered them into your hands. 12 And I sent before you and I drove them out from their places, the two kings of the Amorrhites, not with your sword nor with your bow, 13 and I gave you a land, in which you had not laboured, and cities to dwell in which you built not, vineyards and oliveyards, which you planted not.
[Of the river… The Euphrates. (Challoner)]

Wisdom 10
1 She preserved him, that was first formed by God, the father of the world, when he was created alone, 2 and she brought him out of his sin, and gave him power to govern all things. 3 But when the unjust went away from her in his anger, he perished by the fury wherewith he murdered his brother. 4 For whose cause, when water destroyed the earth, wisdom healed it again, directing the course of the just by contemptible wood. 5 Moreover, when the nations had conspired together to consent to wickedness, she knew the just, and preserved him without blame to God, and kept him strong against the compassion for his son. 6 She delivered the just man, who fled from the wicked that were perishing, when the fire came down upon Pentapolis: 7 Whose land, for a testimony of their wickedness, is desolate, and smokes to this day, and the trees bear fruits that ripen not, and a standing pillar of salt is a monument of an incredulous soul. 8 For regarding not wisdom, they did not only slip in this, that they were ignorant of good things; but they left also unto men a memorial of their folly, so that in the things in which they sinned, they could not so much as lie hid. 9 But wisdom has delivered from sorrow them that attend upon her. 10 She conducted the just, when he fled from his brother’s wrath, through the right ways, and showed him the kingdom of God, and gave him the knowledge of the holy things, made him honourable in his labours, and accomplished his labours. 11 In the deceit of them that overreached him, she stood by him, and made him honourable. 12 She kept him safe from his enemies, and she defended him from seducers, and gave him a strong conflict, that he might overcome, and know that wisdom is mightier than all. 13 She forsook not the just when he was sold, but delivered him from sinners: she went down with him into the pit. 14 And in bands she left him not, till she brought him the sceptre of the kingdom, and power against those that oppressed him: and showed them to be liars that had accused him, and gave him everlasting glory. 15 She delivered the just people, and blameless seed, from the nations that oppressed them. 16 She entered into the soul of the servant of God and stood against dreadful kings in wonders and signs. 17 And she rendered to the just the wages of their labours, and conducted them in a wonderful way: and she was to them for a covert by day, and for the light of stars by night: 18 And she brought them through the Red Sea, and carried them over through a great water. 19 But their enemies she drowned in the sea, and from the depth of hell she brought them out. Therefore the just took the spoils of the wicked. 20 And they sung to your holy name, O Lord, and they praised with one accord your victorious hand. 21 For wisdom opened the mouth of the dumb, and made the tongues of infants eloquent.
[The unjust… Cain. (Challoner)
For whose cause… Viz., for the wickedness of the race of Cain. — Ibid. (Challoner)
The just… Noe. (Challoner)
She knew the just… She found out and approved Abraham. Ibid. (Challoner)
And kept him strong, etc… Gave him strength to stand firm against the efforts of his natural tenderness, when he was ordered to sacrifice his son. (Challoner)
The just man… Lot. — Ibid. (Challoner)
Pentapolis… The land of the five cities, Sodom, Gomorrha, etc. (Challoner)
The just… Jacob. (Challoner)
Conflict… Viz., with the angel. (Challoner)
The just when he was sold… Viz., Joseph. (Challoner)
The servant of God… Viz., Moses. (Challoner)]

Wisdom 11
1 She prospered their works in the hands of the holy prophet. 2 They went through wildernesses that were not inhabited, and in desert places they pitched their tents. 3 They stood against their enemies, and revenged themselves of their adversaries. 4 They were thirsty, and they called upon you, and water was given them out of the high rock, and a refreshment of their thirst out of the hard stone. 5 For by what things their enemies were punished, when their drink failed them, while the children of Israel abounded therewith, and rejoiced: 6 By the same things they in their need were benefited. 7 For instead of a fountain of an ever running river, you gave human blood to the unjust. 8 And whilst they were diminished for a manifest reproof of their murdering the infants, you gave to yours abundant water unlooked for: 9 Showing by the thirst that was then, how you exalted yours, and killed their adversaries. 10 For when they were tried, and chastised with mercy, they knew how the wicked were judged with wrath, and tormented. 11 For you admonished and tried them as a father: but the others, as a severe king, you examined and condemned. 12 For whether absent or present, they were tormented alike. 13 For a double affliction came upon them, and a groaning for the remembrance of things past. 14 For when they heard that by their punishments the others were benefited, they remembered the Lord, wondering at the end of what had come to pass. 15 For whom they scorned before, when he was thrown out at the time of his being wickedly exposed to perish, him they admired in the end, when they saw the event: their thirsting being unlike to that of the just. 16 But for the foolish devices of their iniquity, because some being deceived worshipped dumb serpents and worthless beasts, you sent upon them a multitude of dumb beasts for vengeance: 17 That they might know that by what things a man sins, by the same also he is tormented. 18 For your almighty hand, which made the world of matter without form, was not unable to send upon them a multitude of bears, or fierce lions, 19 or unknown beasts of a new kind, full of rage; either breathing out a fiery vapour, or sending forth a stinking smoke, or shooting horrible sparks out of their eyes: 20 Whereof not only the hurt might be able to destroy them, but also the very sight might kill them through fear. 21 Yea, and without these, they might have been slain with one blast, persecuted by their own deeds, and scattered by the breath of your power: but you have ordered all things in measure, and number, and weight. 22 For great power always belonged to you alone: and who shall resist the strength of your arm? 23 For the whole world before you is as the least grain of the balance, and as a drop of the morning dew, that falls down upon the earth. 24 But you have mercy upon all, because you can do all things, and overlook the sins of men for the sake of repentance. 25 For you love all things that are, and hate none of the things which you have made: for you did not appoint, or make anything hating it. 26 And how could anything endure, if you would not? Or be preserved, if not called by you? 27 But you spare all: because they are yours, O Lord, who love souls.
[ The holy prophet… Moses. (Challoner)
Their enemies… The Amalecites. (Challoner)
By what things, etc… The meaning is, that God, who wrought a miracle to punish the Egyptians by thirst, when he turned all their waters into blood, (at which time the Israelites, who were exempt from those plagues, had plenty of water), wrought another miracle in favour of his own people in their thirst, by giving them water out of the rock. (Challoner)
By their punishments, etc… That is, that the Israelites had been benefited and miraculously favoured in the same kind, in which they had been punished. (Challoner)
Dumb beasts… Viz., frogs, sciniphs, flies, and locusts. (Challoner) ]

Wisdom 12
1 O how good and sweet is your Spirit, O Lord, in all things! 2 And therefore you chastise them that err, by little and little: and admonish them, and speak to them, concerning the things wherein they offend: that leaving their wickedness, they may believe in you, O Lord.
3 For those ancient inhabitants of your holy land, whom you abhorred, 4 because they did works hateful to you by their sorceries, and wicked sacrifices, 5 and those merciless murderers of their own children, and eaters of men’s bowels, and devourers of blood from the midst of your consecration, 6 and those parents sacrificing with their own hands helpless souls, it was your will to destroy by the hands of our parents, 7 that the land which of all is most dear to you, might receive a worthy colony of the children of God. 8 Yet even those you spared as men, and sent wasps forerunners of your host, to destroy them by little and little. 9 Not that you were unable to bring the wicked under the just by war, or by cruel beasts, or with one rough word to destroy them at once: 10 But executing your judgments by degrees, you gave them place of repentance, not being ignorant that they were a wicked generation, and their malice natural, and that their thought could never be changed. 11 For it was a cursed seed from the beginning: neither did you for fear of any one give pardon to their sins. 12 For who shall say to you: What have you done? Or who shall withstand your judgment? Or who shall come before you to be a revenger of wicked men? Or who shall accuse you, if the nations perish, which you have made? 13 For there is no other God but you, who have care of all, that you should show that you do not give judgment unjustly. 14 Neither shall king, nor tyrant, in your sight inquire about them whom you have destroyed. 15 For so much then, as you are just, you order all things justly: thinking it not agreeable to the power, to condemn him who deserves not to be punished. 16 For your power is the beginning of justice: and because you are Lord of all, you make yourself gracious to all. 17 For you show your power, when men will not believe you to be absolute in power, and you convince the boldness of them that know you not. 18 But you being master of power, judge with tranquillity, and with great favour dispose of us: for your power is at hand when you will. 19 But you have taught your people by such works, that they must be just and humane, and have made your children to be of a good hope: because in judging, you give place for repentance for sins. 20 For if you punished the enemies of your servants, and that deserved to die, with so great deliberation, giving them time and place whereby they might be changed from their wickedness: 21 With what circumspection have you judged your own children, to whose parents you have sworn, and made covenants of good promises? 22 Therefore whereas you chastise us, you scourge our enemies very many ways, to the end that when we judge we may think on your goodness: and when we are judged, we may hope for your mercy. 23 Wherefore you have also greatly tormented them, who, in their life, have lived foolishly and unjustly, by the same things which they worshipped. 24 For they went astray for a long time in the ways of error, holding those things for gods which are the most worthless among beasts, living after the manner of children without understanding. 25 Therefore you have sent a judgment upon them, as senseless children, to mock them. 26 But they that were not amended by mockeries and reprehensions, experienced the worthy judgment of God. 27 For seeing, with indignation, that they suffered by those very things which they took for gods, when they were destroyed by the same, they acknowledged him the true God, whom in time past they denied that they knew: for which cause the end also of their condemnation came upon them.
[ From the midst of thy consecration… Literally, sacrament. That is, the land sacred to thee, in which thy temple was to be established, and man’s redemption to be wrought. (Challoner)]

Wisdom 13
1 But all men are vain, in whom there is not the knowledge of God: and who by these good things that are seen, could not understand him that is, neither by attending to the works have acknowledged who was the workman: 2 But have imagined either the fire, or the wind, or the swift air, or the circle of the stars, or the great water, or the sun and moon, to be the gods that rule the world. 3 With whose beauty, if they, being delighted, took them to be gods: let them know how much the Lord of them is more beautiful than they: for the first author of beauty made all those things. 4 Or if they admired their power, and their effects, let them understand by them, that he that made them, is mightier than they: 5 For by the greatness of the beauty, and of the creature, the creator of them may be seen, so as to be known thereby. 6 But yet as to these they are less to be blamed. For they perhaps err, seeking God, and desirous to find him. 7 For being conversant among his works, they search: and they are persuaded that the things are good which are seen. 8 But then again they are not to be pardoned. 9 For if they were able to know so much as to make a judgment of the world: how did they not more easily find out the Lord thereof? 10 But unhappy are they, and their hope is among the dead, who have called gods the works of the hand of men, gold and silver, the inventions of art, and the resemblances of beasts, or an unprofitable stone the work of an ancient hand. 11 Or if an artist, a carpenter, has cut down a tree proper for his use in the wood, and skilfully taken off all the bark thereof, and with his art, diligently forms a vessel profitable for the common uses of life, 12 and uses the chips of his work to dress his meat: 13 And taking what was left thereof, which is good for nothing, being a crooked piece of wood, and full of knots, carves it diligently when he has nothing else to do, and by the skill of his art fashions it, and makes it like the image of a man: 14 Or the resemblance of some beast, laying it over with vermilion, and painting it red, and covering every spot that is in it: 15 And makes a convenient dwelling place for it, and setting it in a wall, and fastening it with iron, 16 providing for it, lest it should fall, knowing that it is unable to help itself: for it is an image, and has need of help. 17 And then makes prayer to it, enquiring concerning his substance, and his children, or his marriage. And he is not ashamed to speak to that which has no life: 18 And for health he makes supplication to the weak, and for life prays to that which is dead, and for help calls upon that which is unprofitable: 19 And for a good journey he petitions him that cannot walk: and for getting, and for working, and for the event of all things he asks him that is unable to do anything.

Wisdom 14
1 Again, another designing to sail, and beginning to make his voyage through the raging waves, calls upon a piece of wood more frail than the wood that carries him. 2 For this the desire of gain devised, and the workman built it by his skill. 3 But your providence, O Father, governs it: for you have made a way even in the sea, and a most sure path among the waves, 4 showing that you are able to save out of all things, yea, though a man went to sea without art. 5 But that the works of your wisdom might not be idle: therefore men also trust their lives even to a little wood, and passing over the sea by ship, are saved. 6 And from the beginning also, when the proud giants perished, the hope of the world fleeing to a vessel, which was governed by your hand, left to the world seed of generation. 7 For blessed is the wood, by which justice comes 8 but the idol that is made by hands, is cursed, as well it, as he that made it: he because he made it; and it because being frail it is called a god. 9 But to God the wicked and his wickedness are hateful alike. 10 For that which is made, together with him that made it, shall suffer torments. 11 Therefore there shall be no respect had even to the idols of the Gentiles: because the creatures of God are turned to an abomination, and a temptation to the souls of men, and a snare to the feet of the unwise. 12 For the beginning of fornication is the devising of idols: and the invention of them is the corruption of life. 13 For neither were they from the beginning, neither shall they be for ever. 14 For by the vanity of men they came into the world: and therefore they shall be found to come shortly to an end. 15 For a father being afflicted with bitter grief, made to himself the image of his son, who was quickly taken away: and him who then had died as a man, he began now to worship as a god, and appointed him rites and sacrifices among his servants. 16 Then, in process of time, wicked custom prevailing, this error was kept as a law, and statues were worshipped by the commandment of tyrants. 17 And those whom men could not honour in presence, because they dwelt far off, they brought their resemblance from afar, and made an express image of the king, whom they had a mind to honour: that by this their diligence, they might honour as present, him that was absent. 18 And to the worshipping of these, the singular diligence also of the artificer helped to set forward the ignorant. 19 For he being willing to please him that employed him, laboured with all his art to make the resemblance in the best manner. 20 And the multitude of men, carried away by the beauty of the work, took him now for a god, that little before was but honoured as a man. 21 And this was the occasion of deceiving human life: for men serving either their affection, or their kings, gave the incommunicable name to stones and wood. 22 And it was not enough for them to err about the knowledge of God, but whereas they lived in a great war of ignorance, they call so many and so great evils peace. 23 For either they sacrifice their own children, or use hidden sacrifices, or keep watches full of madness, 24 so that now they neither keep life, nor marriage undefiled, but one kills another through envy, or grieves him by adultery: 25 And all things are mingled together, blood, murder, theft, and dissimulation, corruption and unfaithfulness, tumults and perjury, disquieting of the good, 26 forgetfulness of God, defiling of souls, changing of nature, disorder in marriage, and the irregularity of adultery and uncleanness. 27 For the worship of abominable idols is the cause, and the beginning and end of all evil. 28 For either they are mad when they are merry: or they prophesy lies, or they live unjustly, or easily forswear themselves. 29 For whilst they trust in idols, which are without life, though they swear amiss, they look not to be hurt. 30 But for both these things they shall be justly punished, because they have thought not well of God, giving heed to idols, and have sworn unjustly, in guile despising justice. 31 For it is not the power of them, by whom they swear, but the just vengeance of sinners always punishes the transgression of the unjust.

Wisdom 15
1 But you, our God, are gracious and true, patient, and ordering all things in mercy. 2 For if we sin, we are yours, knowing your greatness: and if we sin not, we know that we are counted with you. 3 For to know you is perfect justice: and to know your justice, and your power, is the root of immortality. 4 For the invention of mischievous men has not deceived us, nor the shadow of a picture, a fruitless labour, a graven figure with divers colours, 5 the sight whereof entices the fool to lust after it, and he loves the lifeless figure of a dead image. 6 The lovers of evil things deserve to have no better things to trust in, both they that make them, and they that love them, and they that worship them. ut you, our God, are gracious and true, patient, and ordering all things in mercy. 2 For if we sin, we are yours, knowing your greatness: and if we sin not, we know that we are counted with you. 3 For to know you is perfect justice: and to know your justice, and your power, is the root of immortality. 4 For the invention of mischievous men has not deceived us, nor the shadow of a picture, a fruitless labour, a graven figure with divers colours, 5 the sight whereof entices the fool to lust after it, and he loves the lifeless figure of a dead image. 6 The lovers of evil things deserve to have no better things to trust in, both they that make them, and they that love them, and they that worship them. 18 Moreover, they worship also the vilest creatures: but things without sense, compared to these, are worse than they. 19 Yea, neither by sight can any man see good of these beasts. But they have fled from the praise of God, and from his blessing.

Wisdom 16
1 For these things, and by the like things to these, they were worthily punished, and were destroyed by a multitude of beasts. 2 Instead of which punishment, dealing well with your people, you gave them their desire of delicious food, of a new taste, preparing for them quails for their meat: 3 To the end, that they indeed desiring food, by means of those things that were shown and sent among them, might loath even that which was necessary to satisfy their desire. But these, after suffering want for a short time, tasted a new meat. 4 For it was requisite that inevitable destruction should come upon them that exercised tyranny: but to these it should only be shown how their enemies were destroyed. 5 For when the fierce rage of beasts came upon these, they were destroyed by the bitings of crooked serpents. 6 But your wrath endured not for ever, but they were troubled for a short time for their correction, having a sign of salvation, to put them in remembrance of the commandment of your law. 7 For he that turned to it, was not healed by that which he saw, but by you, the Saviour of all. 8 And in this you showed to our enemies, that you are he who delivers from all evil. 9 For the bitings of locusts, and of flies, killed them, and there was found no remedy for their life: because they were worthy to be destroyed by such things. 10 But not even the teeth of venomous serpents overcame your children: for your mercy came and healed them. 11 For they were examined for the remembrance of your words, and were quickly healed, lest falling into deep forgetfulness, they might not be able to use your help. 12 For it was neither herb, nor mollifying plaster, that healed them, but your word, O Lord, which heals all things. 13 For it is you, O Lord, that have power of life and death, and lead down to the gates of death, and bring back again: 14 A man indeed kills through malice, and when the spirit has gone forth, it shall not return, neither shall he call back the soul that is received: 15 But it is impossible to escape your hand: 16 For the wicked that denied to know you, were scourged by the strength of your arm, being persecuted by strange waters, and hail, and rain, and consumed by fire. 17 And which was wonderful, in water, which extinguishes all things, the fire had more force: for the world fights for the just. 18 For at one time the fire was mitigated, that the beasts which were sent against the wicked might not be burnt, but that they might see, and perceive that they were persecuted by the judgment of God. 19 And at another time the fire, above its own power, burnt in the midst of water, to destroy the fruits of a wicked land. 20 Instead of which things, you fed your people with the food of angels, and gave them bread from heaven, prepared without labour; having in it all that is delicious, and the sweetness of every taste. 21 For your sustenance showed your sweetness to your children, and serving every man’s will, it was turned to what every man liked. 22 But snow and ice endured the force of fire, and melted not: that they might know that the fire, burning in the hail, and flashing in the rain, destroyed the fruits of the enemies. 23 But this same again, that the just might be nourished, did even forget its own strength. 24 For the creature serving you, the Creator, is made fierce against the unjust for their punishment: and abates its strength for the benefit of them that trust in you. 25 Therefore even then it was transformed into all things, and was obedient to your grace, that nourishes all, according to the will of them that desired it of you: 26 That your children, O Lord, whom you loved, might know that it is not the growing of fruits that nourishes men, but your word preserves them that believe in you. 27 For that which could not be destroyed by fire, being warmed with a little sunbeam, presently melted away: 28 That it might be known to all, that we ought to prevent the sun to bless you, and adore you at the dawning of the light. 29 For the hope of the unthankful shall melt away as the winter’s ice, and shall run off as unprofitable water.
[They indeed desiring food, etc… He means the Egyptians; who were restrained even from that food which was necessary, by the frogs and the flies that were sent amongst them, and spoiled all their meats. — Ibid. (Challoner)
But these… Viz., the Israelites. (Challoner)
Sign of salvation… The brazen serpent, an emblem of Christ our Saviour. (Challoner)
The fire had more force… Viz., when the fire and hail mingled together laid waste the land of Egypt. Exodus 9. (Challoner)]

Wisdom 17
1 For your judgments, O Lord, are great, and your words cannot be expressed: therefore undisciplined souls have erred. 2 For while the wicked thought to be able to have dominion over the holy nation, they themselves being fettered with the bonds of darkness, and a long night, shut up in their houses, lay there exiled from the eternal providence. 3 And while they thought to lie hid in their obscure sins, they were scattered under a dark veil of forgetfullness, being horribly afraid, and troubled with exceeding great astonishment. 4 For neither did the den that held them, keep them from fear: for noises coming down troubled them, and sad visions appearing to them, affrighted them. 5 And no power of fire could give them light, neither could the bright flames of the stars enlighten that horrible night. 6 But there appeared to them a sudden fire, very dreadful: and being struck with the fear of that face, which was not seen, they thought the things which they saw to be worse: 7 And the delusions of their magic art were put down, and their boasting of wisdom was reproachfully rebuked. 8 For they who promised to drive away fears and troubles from a sick soul, were sick themselves of a fear worthy to be laughed at. 9 For though no terrible thing disturbed them: yet being scared with the passing by of beasts, and hissing of serpents, they died for fear and denying that they saw the air, which could by no means be avoided. 10 For whereas wickedness is fearful, it bears witness of its condemnation: for a troubled conscience always forecasts grievous things. 11 For fear is nothing else but a yielding up of the succours from thought. 12 And while there is less expectation from within, the greater does it count the ignorance of that cause which brings the torment. 13 But they that during that night, in which nothing could be done, and which came upon them from the lowest and deepest hell, slept the same sleep, 14 were sometimes molested with the fear of monsters, sometimes fainted away, their soul failing them: for a sudden and unlooked for fear had come upon them. 15 Moreover, if any of them had fallen down, he was kept shut up in prison without irons. 16 For if any one were a husbandman, or a shepherd, or a labourer in the field, and was suddenly overtaken, he endured a necessity from which he could not fly. 17 For they were all bound together with one chain of darkness. Whether it were a whistling wind, or the melodious voice of birds, among the spreading branches of trees, or a fall of water running down with violence, 18 or the mighty noise of stones tumbling down, or the running that could not be seen of beasts playing together, or the roaring voice of wild beasts, or a rebounding echo from the highest mountains: these things made them to swoon for fear. 19 For the whole world was enlightened, with a clear light, and none were hindered in their labours. 20 But over them only was spread a heavy night, an image of that darkness which was to come upon them. But they were to themselves more grievous than the darkness.

Wisdom 18
1 But your saints had a very great light, and they heard their voice indeed, but did not see their shape. And because they also did not suffer the same things, they glorified you: 2 And they that before had been wronged, gave thanks, because they were not hurt now: and asked this gift, that there might be a difference. 3 Therefore they received a burning pillar of fire for a guide of the way which they knew not, and you gave them a harmless sun of a good entertainment. 4 The others indeed were worthy to be deprived of light, and imprisoned in darkness, who kept your children shut up, by whom the pure light of the law was to be given to the world. 5 And whereas they thought to kill the babes of the just: one child being cast forth, and saved to reprove them, you took away a multitude of their children, and destroyed them altogether in a mighty water. 6 For that night was known before by our fathers, that assuredly knowing what oaths they had trusted to, they might be of better courage. 7 So your people received the salvation of the just, and destruction of the unjust. 8 For as you punished the adversaries so you also encouraged and glorified us. 9 For the just children of good men were offering sacrifice secretly, and they unanimously ordered a law of justice: that the just should receive both good and evil alike, singing now the praises of the fathers. 10 But on the other side there sounded an ill according cry of the enemies, and a lamentable mourning was heard for the children that were bewailed. 11 And the servant suffered the same punishment as the master, and a common man suffered in like manner as the king. 12 So all alike had innumerable dead, with one kind of death. Neither were the living sufficient to bury them: for in one moment the noblest offspring of them was destroyed. 13 For whereas they would not believe anything before by reason of the enchantments, then first upon the destruction of the firstborn, they acknowledged the people to be of God. 14 For while all things were in quiet silence, and the night was in the midst of her course, 15 your Almighty word leaped down from heaven from your royal throne, as a fierce conqueror into the midst of the land of destruction, 16 with a sharp sword carrying your unfeigned commandment, and he stood and filled all things with death, and standing on the earth, reached even to heaven. 17 Then suddenly visions of evil dreams troubled them, and fears unlooked for came upon them. 18 And one thrown here, another there, half dead, showed the cause of his death. 19 For the visions that troubled them foreshowed these things, lest they should perish, and not know why they suffered these evils. 20 But the just also were afterwards touched by an assault of death, and there was a disturbance of the multitude in the wilderness: but your wrath did not long continue; 21 for a blameless man made haste to pry for the people, bringing forth the shield of his ministry, prayer, and by incense making supplication, withstood the wrath, and put an end to the calamity, showing that he was your servant. 22 And he overcame the disturbance, not by strength of body nor with force of arms, but with a word he subdued him that punished them, alleging the oath and covenant made with the fathers. 23 For when they were now fallen down dead by heaps one upon another, he stood between and stayed the assault, and cut off the way to the living. 24 For in the priestly robe which he wore, was the whole world: and in the four rows of the stones, the glory of the fathers was graven, and your majesty was written upon the diadem of his head. 25 And to these the destroyer gave place, and was afraid of them: for the proof only of wrath was enough.
[A harmless sun… A light that should not hurt or molest them; but that should be an agreeable guest to them. (Challoner)
One child… Viz., Moses. (Challoner)
Of good men… Viz., of the patriarchs. Their children, the Israelites, offered in private the sacrifice of the paschal lamb; and were regulating what they were to do in their journey, when that last and most dreadful plague was coming upon their enemies. (Challoner)
The noblest offspring… That is, the firstborn. (Challoner)]

Wisdom 19
1 But as to the wicked, even to the end there came upon them wrath without mercy. For he knew before also what they would do: 2 For when they had given them leave to depart and had sent them away with great care, they repented and pursued after them. 3 For whilst they were yet mourning, and lamenting at the graves of the dead, they took up another foolish device: and pursued them as fugitives whom they had pressed to be gone: 4 For a necessity, of which they were worthy, brought them to this end: and they lost the remembrance of those things which had happened, that their punishment might fill up what was wanting to their torments: 5 And that your people might wonderfully pass through, but they might find a new death. 6 For every creature, according to its kind was fashioned again as from the beginning, obeying your commandments, that your children might be kept without hurt. 7 For a cloud overshadowed their camps and where water was before, dry land appeared, and in the Red Sea a way without hindrance, and out of the great deep a springing field: 8 Through which all the nation passed which was protected with your hand, seeing your miracles and wonders. 9 For they fed on their food like horses, and they skipped like lambs, praising you, O Lord, who had delivered them. 10 For they were yet mindful of those things which had been done in the time of their sojourning, how the ground brought forth flies instead of cattle, and how the river cast up a multitude of frogs instead of fishes. 11 And at length they saw a new generation of birds, when being led by their appetite, they asked for delicate meats. 12 For to satisfy their desire, the quail came up to them from the sea: 13 and punishments came upon the sinners, not without foregoing signs by the force of thunders: for they suffered justly according to their own wickedness. 14 For they exercised a more detestable inhospitality than any: others indeed received not strangers unknown to them, but these brought their guests into bondage that had deserved well of them. 15 And not only so, but in another respect also they were worse: for the others against their will received the strangers. 16 But these grievously afflicted them whom they had received with joy, and who lived under the same laws. 17 But they were struck with blindness: as those others were at the doors of the just man, when they were covered with sudden darkness, and every one sought the passage of his own door. 18 For while the elements are changed in themselves, as in an instrument the sound of the quality is changed, yet all keep their sound: which may clearly be perceived by the very sight. 19 For the things of the land were turned into things of the water: and the things that before swam in the water passed upon the land. 20 The fire had power in water above its own virtue, and the water forgot its quenching nature. 21 On the other side, the flames wasted not the flesh of corruptible animals walking therein, neither did they melt that good food, which was apt to melt as ice. 22 For in all things you magnified your people, O Lord, and honoured them, and did not despise them, but did assist them at all times, and in every place.
[ Elements are changed, etc… The meaning is, that whatever changes God wrought in the elements by miracles in favour of his people, they still kept their harmony by obeying his will. (Challoner)
That good food… The manna. (Challoner)]

Genesis 15 , 13 – 16
13 And it was said unto him: Know beforehand that your seed shall be a stranger in a land not their own, and they shall bring them under bondage, and afflict them four hundred years. 14 But I will judge the nation which they shall serve, and after this they shall come out with great substance. 15 And you shall go to your fathers in peace, and be buried in a good old age. 16 But in the fourth generation they shall return hither: for as yet the iniquities of the Amorrhites are not at the full until this present time.

Exodus 3, 7 – 10
7 And the Lord said to him: I have seen the affliction of my people in Egypt, and I have heard their cry because of the rigour of them that are over the works; 8 and knowing their sorrow, I have come down to deliver them out of the hands of the Egyptians, and to bring them out of that land into a good and spacious land, into a land that flows with milk and honey, to the places of the Chanaanite, and Hethite, and Amorrhite, and Pherezite, and Hevite, and Jebusite. 9 For the cry of the children of Israel has come unto me: and I have seen their affliction, wherewith they are oppressed by the Egyptians. 10 But come, and I will send you to Pharao, that you may bring forth my people, the children of Israel, out of Egypt.

Joz 1, 1 – 5
1 Now it came to pass after the death of Moses, the servant of the Lord, that the Lord spoke to Joshua, the son of Nun, the minister of Moses, and said to him: 2 Moses my servant is dead: arise, and pass over this Jordan, you and your people with you, into the land which I will give to the children of Israel. 3 I will deliver to you every place that the sole of your foot shall tread upon, as I have said to Moses. 4 From the desert, and from Libanus unto the great river Euphrates, all the land of the Hethites, unto the great sea toward the going down of the sun, shall be your border. 5 No man shall be able to resist you all the days of your life: as I have been with Moses, so will I be with you: I will not leave you, nor forsake you.

Joshua 21, 45
45 Not so much as one word, which he had promised to perform unto them, was made void, but all came to pass.

Joshua 23, 14
14 Behold this day I am going into the way of all the earth, and you shall know with all your mind that of all the words which the Lord promised to perform for you, not one has failed,

1 Kings 8, 56
56 Blessed be the Lord, who has given rest to his people Israel, according to all that he promised: there has not failed so much as one word of all the good things that he promised by his servant Moses.

Isaiah 9, 7
7 His empire shall be multiplied, and there shall be no end of peace: he shall sit upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom; to establish it and strengthen it with judgment and with justice, from henceforth and for ever: the zeal of the Lord of hosts will perform this.

Psalm 107, 20
20 He sent his word, and healed them: and delivered them from their destructions.

Psalm 147, 15
15 Who sends forth his speech to the earth: his word runs swiftly.

Zechariah 1, 6
6 But yet my words, and my ordinances, which I gave in charge to my servants the prophets, did they not take hold of your fathers, and they returned, and said: As the Lord of hosts thought to do to us according to our ways, and according to our devices, so he has done to us.

Jeremiah 1, 12
12 And the Lord said to me: You have seen well: for I will watch over my word to perform it.

Numbers 23, 19
19 God is not a man, that he should lie, nor is the son of man, that he should be changed. Has he said then, and will he not do? Has he spoken, and will he not fulfil?

Isaiah 55, 10 – 11
10 And as the rain and the snow come down from heaven, and return no more thither, but soak the earth, and water it, and make it to spring, and give seed to the sower, and bread to the eater: 11 So shall my word be, which shall go forth from my mouth: it shall not return to me void, but it shall do whatsoever I please, and shall prosper in the things for which I sent it.

Deuteronomy 9, 5
5 For it is not for your justices, and the uprightness of your heart that you shall go in to possess their lands: but because they have done wickedly, they are destroyed at your coming in: and that the Lord might accomplish his word, which he promised by oath to your fathers Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.

1 Kings 2, 4
4 That the Lord may confirm his words, which he has spoken of me, saying: If your children shall take heed to their ways, and shall walk before me in truth, with all their heart, and with all their soul, there shall not be taken away from you a man on the throne of Israel.

Jeremiah 11, 5
5 That I may accomplish the oath which I swore to your fathers, to give them a land flowing with milk and honey, as it is this day. And I answered and said: Amen, O Lord.

Isaiah 44, 7 – 8
7 Who is like to me? Let him call and declare: and let him set before me the order, since I appointed the ancient people: and the things to come, and that shall be hereafter, let them show unto them. 8 Fear not, neither be troubled from that time I have made you to hear, and have declared: you are my witnesses. Is there a God besides me, a maker, whom I have not known?

Psalm 105, 31.34
31 He spoke, and there came divers sorts of flies and sciniphs in all their coasts.
34 He spoke, and the locust came, and the bruchus, of which there was no number.
[Sciniphs… See the annotation, Exodus 8:16. (Challoner)
Bruchus… An insect of the locust kind. (Challoner)]

Isaiah 44, 26.28
26 That raise up the word of my servant and perform the counsel of my messengers, who say to Jerusalem: You shall be inhabited: and to the cities of Juda: You shall be built, and I will raise up the wastes thereof.
28 Who say to Cyrus: You are my shepherd, and you shall perform all my pleasure. Who say to Jerusalem: You shall be built: and to the temple: Your foundations shall be laid.

Psalm 33, 6 – 9
6 By the word of the Lord the heavens were established; and all the power of them by the spirit of his mouth: 7 Gathering together the waters of the sea, as in a vessel; laying up the depths in storehouses. 8 Let all the earth fear the Lord, and let all the inhabitants of the world be in awe of him. 9 For he spoke and they were made: he commanded and they were created.

Genesis 1
1 In the beginning God created heaven and earth. 2 And the earth was void and empty, and darkness was upon the face of the deep, and the spirit of God moved over the waters. 3 And God said: Be light made. And light was made. 4 And God saw the light, that it was good, and he divided the light from the darkness. 5 And he called the light Day, and the darkness Night; and there was evening and morning, one day. 6 And God said: Let there be a firmament made amidst the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters. 7 And God made a firmament, and divided the waters that were under the firmament from those that were above the firmament, and it was so. 8 And God called the firmament Heaven; and the evening and morning were the second day. 9 God also said: Let the waters that are under the heaven be gathered together into one place, and let the dry land appear. And it was so done. 10 And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters, he called Seas. And God saw that it was good. 11 And he said: Let the earth bring forth green herb, and such as may seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after its kind, which may have seed in itself upon the earth. And it was so done. 12 And the earth brought forth the green herb, and such as yields seed according to its kind, and the tree that bears fruit, having seed each one according to its kind. And God saw that it was good. 13 And the evening and the morning were the third day. 14 And God said: Let there be lights made in the firmament of heaven, to divide the day and the night, and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days and years, 15 to shine in the firmament of heaven, and to give light upon the earth. And it was so done. 16 And God made two great lights — a greater light to rule the day, and a lesser light to rule the night — and the stars. 17 And he set them in the firmament of heaven to shine upon the earth, 18 and to rule the day and the night, and to divide the light and the darkness. And God saw that it was good. 19 And the evening and morning were the fourth day. 20 God also said: Let the waters bring forth the creeping creature having life, and the fowl that may fly over the earth under the firmament of heaven. 21 And God created the great whales, and every living and moving creature which the waters brought forth, according to their kinds, and every winged fowl according to its kind. And God saw that it was good. 22 And he blessed them, saying: Increase and multiply, and fill the waters of the sea, and let the birds be multiplied upon the earth. 23 And the evening and morning were the fifth day. 24 And God said: Let the earth bring forth the living creature in its kind, cattle and creeping things, and beasts of the earth, according to their kinds. And it was so done. 25 And God made the beasts of the earth according to their kinds, and cattle, and everything that creeps on the earth after its kind. And God saw that it was good. 26 And he said: Let us make man to our image and likeness, and let him have dominion over the fishes of the sea, and the fowls of the air, and the beasts, and the whole earth, and every creeping creature that moves upon the earth. 27 And God created man to his own image; to the image of God he created him; male and female he created them. 28 And God blessed them, saying: Increase and multiply, and fill the earth, and subdue it, and rule over the fishes of the sea, and the fowls of the air, and all living creatures that move upon the earth. 29 And God said: Behold I have given you every herb bearing seed upon the earth, and all trees that have in themselves seed of their own kind, to be your food; 30 and to all beasts of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to all that move upon the earth, and wherein there is life, that they may have to feed upon. And it was so done. 31 And God saw all the things that he had made, and they were very good. And the evening and morning were the sixth day.
[ “By firmament is here understood the whole space between the earth and the highest stars, the lower part of which divides the waters that are upon the earth from those that are above in the clouds.” —Bishop Richard Challoner (Commentary on the Old Testament))
Two great lights… God created on the first day, light, which being moved from east to west, by its rising and setting, made morning and evening. But on the fourth day he ordered and distributed this light, and made the sun, moon, and stars. The moon, though much less than the stars, is here called a great light, from its giving a far greater light to the earth than any of them. (Challoner)
Let us make man to our image… This image of God in man, is not in the body, but in the soul; which is a spiritual substance, endued with understanding and free will. God speaks here in the plural number, to insinuate the plurality of persons in the Deity. (Challoner)
Increase and multiply… This is not a precept, as some Protestant controvertists would have it, but a blessing, rendering them fruitful; for God had said the same words to the fishes, and birds (verse 22) who were incapable of receiving a precept. (Challoner) ]

Lamentations 3, 37
37 Mem. Who is he that has commanded a thing to be done, when the Lord commands it not?

Judith 16, 14
14 The sons of the damsels have pierced them through, and they have killed them like children fleeing away: they perished in battle before the face of the Lord my God.

Wisdom 9, 1
1 God of my fathers, and Lord of mercy, who have made all things with your word,

Sirach 42, 15
15 I will now remember the works of the Lord, and I will declare the things I have seen. By the words of the Lord are his works.

Isaiah 40, 26
26 Lift up your eyes on high, and see who has created these things: who brings out their host by number, and calls them all by their names: by the greatness of his might, and strength, and power, not one of them was missing.

Isaiah 27
1 In that day the Lord with his hard, and great, and strong sword shall visit leviathan the bar serpent, and leviathan the crooked serpent, and shall slay the whale that is in the sea. 2 In that day there shall be singing to the vineyard of pure wine. 3 I am the Lord that keep it, I will suddenly give it drink: lest any hurt come to it, I keep it night and day. 4 There is no indignation in me: who shall make me a thorn and a brier in battle: shall I march against it, shall, I set it on fire together? 5 Or rather shall it take hold of my strength, shall it make peace with me, shall it make peace with me? 6 When they shall rush in unto Jacob, Israel shall blossom and bud, and they shall fill the face of the world with seed. 7 Has he struck him according to the stroke of him that struck him? Or is he slain, as he killed them that were slain by him? 8 In measure against measure, when it shall be cast off, you shall judge it. He has meditated with his severe spirit in the day of heat. 9 Therefore upon this shall the iniquity of the house of Jacob be forgiven: and this is all the fruit, that the sin thereof should be taken away, when he shall have made all the stones of the altar, as burnt stones broken in pieces, the groves and temples shall not stand. 10 For the strong city shall be desolate, the beautiful city shall be forsaken, and shall be left as a wilderness: there the calf shall feed, and there shall he lie down, and shall consume its branches. 11 Its harvest shall be destroyed with drought, women shall come and teach it: for it is not a wise people, therefore he that made it, shall not have mercy on it: and he that formed it, shall not spare it. 12 And it shall come to pass, that in that day the Lord will strike from the channel of the river even to the torrent of Egypt, and you shall be gathered together one by one, O you children of Israel. 13 And it shall come to pass, that in that day a noise shall be made with a great trumpet, and they that were lost, shall come from the land of the Assyrians, and they that were outcasts in the land of Egypt, and they shall adore the Lord in the holy mount in Jerusalem.
[ Leviathan… That is, the devil, the great enemy of the people of God. He is called the bar serpent from his strength, and the crooked serpent from his wiles; and the whale of the sea, from the tyranny he exercises in the sea of this world. He was spiritually slain by the death of Christ, when his power was destroyed. (Challoner)
The vineyard, etc… The church of Christ. (Challoner)
I will suddenly give it drink… Or, as the Hebrew may also be rendered, I will continually water it. (Challoner)
No indignation in me, etc… Viz., against the church: nor shall I become as a thorn or brier in its regard; or march against it, or set it on fire: but it shall always take fast hold of me, and keep an everlasting peace with me. (Challoner)
When they shall rush in, etc… Some understand this of the enemies of the true Israel, that shall invade it in vain. Others of the spiritual invasion made by the apostles of Christ. (Challoner)
Has he struck him, etc… Has God punished the carnal persecuting Jews, in proportion to their doings against Christ and his saints?? (Challoner)
When it shall be cast off, etc… When the synagogue shall be cast off, you shall judge it in measure, and in proportion to its crimes. — Ibid. (Challoner)
He hath meditated, etc… God hath designed severe punishments in the day of his wrath. (Challoner)
Of the house of Jacob… Viz., of such of them as shall be converted. (Challoner)
The strong city… Jerusalem. (Challoner)
A great trumpet… The preaching of the gospel for the conversion of the Jews. (Challoner)]

Psalm 107, 25
25 He said the word, and there arose a storm of wind: and the waves thereof were lifted up.

Psalm 147, 15 – 18
15 Who sends forth his speech to the earth: his word runs swiftly. 16 Who gives snow like wool: scatters mists like ashes. 17 He sends his crystal like morsels: who shall stand before the face of his cold? 18 He shall send out his word, and shall melt them: his wind shall blow, and the waters shall run.
[He sends his crystal… That is, his ice. Some understand it of hail, which is, as it were, ice, divided into particles or morsels. (Challoner)]

Job 37, 5 – 13
5 God shall thunder wonderfully with his voice, he that does great and unsearchable things. 6 He commands the snow to go down upon the earth, and the winter rain, and the shower of his strength. 7 He seals up the hand of all men, that every one may know his works. 8 Then the beast shall go into his covert, and shall abide in his den. 9 Out of the inner parts shall a tempest come, and cold out of the north. 10 When God blows there comes frost, and again the waters are poured out abundantly. 11 Corn desires clouds, and the clouds spread their light: 12 Which go round about, wherever the will of him that governs them shall lead them, to whatsoever he shall command them upon the face of the whole earth: 13 Whether in one tribe, or in his own land, or in what place soever of his mercy he shall command them to be found.
[He seals up, etc… When he sends those showers of his strength, that is, those storms of rain, he seals up, that is, he shuts up the hands of men from their usual works abroad, and confines them within doors, to consider his works; or to forecast their works, that is, what they themselves are to do. (Challoner)]

Sirach 39, 17.31
17 By a voice he says: Hear me, you divine offspring, and bud forth as the rose planted by the brooks of waters.
31 The principal things necessary for the life of men, are water, fire, and iron, salt, milk, and bread of flour, and honey, and the cluster of the grape, and oil, and clothing.
[Ye divine offspring… He speaks to the children of Israel, the people of God: whom he exhorts to bud forth and flourish with virtue. (Challoner)]

Wisdom 16, 26
26 That your children, O Lord, whom you loved, might know that it is not the growing of fruits that nourishes men, but your word preserves them that believe in you.

Deuteronomy 8, 3
3 He afflicted you with want, and gave you manna for your food, which neither you nor your fathers knew: to show that not in bread alone does man live, but in every word that proceeds from the mouth of God.

Isaiah 40, 8
8 The grass is withered, and the flower is fallen: but the word of our Lord endures for ever.

Daniel 9
1 In the first year of Darius, the son of Assuerus, of the seed of the Medes, who reigned over the kingdom of the Chaldeans: 2 The first year of his reign I, Daniel, understood by books the number of the years, concerning which the word of the Lord came to Jeremiah, the prophet, that seventy years should be accomplished of the desolation of Jerusalem. 3 And I set my face to the Lord, my God, to pray and make supplication with fasting, and sackcloth, and ashes. 4 And I prayed to the Lord, my God, and I made my confession, and said: I beseech you, O Lord God, great and terrible, who keeps the covenant, and mercy to them that love you, and keep your commandments. 5 We have sinned, we have committed iniquity, we have done wickedly, and have revolted: and we have gone aside from your commandments, and your judgments. 6 We have not hearkened to your servants, the prophets, that have spoken in your name to our kings, to our princes, to our fathers, and to all the people of the land. 7 To you, O Lord, justice: but to us confusion of face, as at this day to the men of Juda, and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and to all Israel, to them that are near, and to them that are far off, in all the countries whither you have driven them, for their iniquities, by which they have sinned against you. 8 O Lord, to us belongs confusion of face, to our princes, and to our fathers, that have sinned. 9 But to you, the Lord our God, mercy and forgiveness, for we have departed from you: 10 And we have not hearkened to the voice of the Lord, our God, to walk in his law, which he set before us by his servants, the prophets. 11 And all Israel have transgressed your law, and have turned away from hearing your voice, and the malediction, and the curse, which is written in the book of Moses, the servant of God, is fallen upon us, because we have sinned against him. 12 And he has confirmed his words which he spoke against us, and against our princes that judged us, that he would bring in upon us a great evil, such as never was under all the heaven, according to that which has been done in Jerusalem. 13 As it is written in the law of Moses, all this evil has come upon us: and we entreated not your face, O Lord our God, that we might turn from our iniquities, and think on your truth. 14 And the Lord has watched upon the evil, and has brought it upon us: the Lord, our God, is just in all his works which he has done: for we have not hearkened to his voice. 15 And now, O Lord, our God, who have brought forth your people out of the land of Egypt, with a strong hand, and have made you a name as at this day: we have sinned, we have committed iniquity, 16 O Lord, against all your justice: let your wrath and your indignation be turned away, I beseech you, from your city, Jerusalem, and from your holy mountain. For by reason of our sins, and the iniquities of our fathers, Jerusalem, and your people, are a reproach to all that are round about us. 17 Now, therefore, O our God, hear the supplication of your servant, and his prayers: and show your face upon your sanctuary, which is desolate, for your own sake. 18 Incline, O my God, your ear, and hear: open your eyes, and see our desolation, and the city upon which your name is called: for it is not for our justifications that we present our prayers before your face, but for the multitude of your tender mercies. 19 O Lord, hear: O Lord, be appeased: hearken, and do: delay not, for your own sake, O my God: because your name is invocated upon your city, and upon your people. 20 Now while I was yet speaking, and praying, and confessing my sins, and the sins of my people of Israel, and presenting my supplications in the sight of my God, for the holy mountain of my God: 21 As I was yet speaking in prayer, behold the man, Gabriel, whom I had seen in the vision at the beginning, flying swiftly, touched me at the time of the evening sacrifice. 22 And he instructed me, and spoke to me, and said: O Daniel, I am now come forth to teach you, and that you might understand. 23 From the beginning of your prayers the word came forth: and I have come to show it to you, because you are a man of desires: therefore, do thou mark the word, and understand the vision. 24 Seventy weeks are shortened upon your people, and upon your holy city, that transgression may be finished, and sin may have an end, and iniquity may be abolished; and everlasting justice may be brought; and vision and prophecy may be fulfilled; and the Saint of saints may be anointed. 25 Know, therefore, and take notice: that from the going forth of the word, to build up Jerusalem again, unto Christ, the prince, there shall be seven weeks, and sixty-two weeks: and the street shall be built again, and the walls, in straitness of times. 26 And after sixty-two weeks Christ shall be slain: and the people that shall deny him shall not be his. And a people, with their leader, that shall come, shall destroy the city, and the sanctuary: and the end thereof shall be waste, and after the end of the war the appointed desolation. 27 And he shall confirm the covenant with many, in one week: and in the half of the week the victim and the sacrifice shall fail: and there shall be in the temple the abomination of desolation: and the desolation shall continue even to the consummation, and to the end.
[The man Gabriel… The angel Gabriel in the shape of a man. (Challoner)
Man of desires… that is, ardently praying for the Jews then in captivity. (Challoner)
Seventy weeks… Viz., of years, (or seventy times seven, that is, 490 years), are shortened; that is, fixed and determined, so that the time shall be no longer. (Challoner)
From the going forth of the word, etc… That is, from the twentieth year of king Artaxerxes, when by his commandment Nehemiah rebuilt the walls of Jerusalem, Nehemiah 2. From which time, according to the best chronology, there were just sixty-nine weeks of years, that is, 483 years to the baptism of Christ, when he first began to preach and execute the office of Messias. — Ibid. (Challoner)
In straitness of times… angustia temporum: which may allude both to the difficulties and opposition they met with in building: and to the shortness of the time in which they finished the wall, viz., fifty-two days. (Challoner)
A people with their leader… The Romans under Titus. (Challoner)
In the half of the week… or, in the middle of the week, etc. Because Christ preached three years and a half: and then by his sacrifice upon the cross abolished all the sacrifices of the law. — Ibid. (Challoner)
The abomination of desolation… Some understand this of the profanation of the temple by the crimes of the Jews, and by the bloody faction of the zealots. Others of the bringing in thither the ensigns and standard of the pagan Romans. Others, in fine, distinguish three different times of desolation: viz., that under Antiochus; that when the temple was destroyed by the Romans; and the last near the end of the world under Antichrist. To all which, as they suppose, this prophecy may have a relation. (Challoner)]


Lednica 2010 - 'Hear, O Israel'

Use of:
– The Bible.
– Dictionary of Biblical Theology.
– Internet.
– Http:// (Eugeniusz_Kazimirowski, _1934). Jpg


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